Pupal case of Drosophila mulli under leaves of Pritchardia beccariana palm, loulu. Off of Saddle Road. This would seem to show fairly clearly that they're breeding in the Pritchardia, though it's not clear exactly where. Perhaps in the rachis when it first dies and rots but before it falls down (by which time it's usually too decayed for typical Drosophila tastes), from where the larvae crawl out onto the lowest living leaf to pupate. No pupae were seen on upper leaves.